It’s hard to imagine an inanimate object capable of being loved, but let me share my viewpoint.
They matter! Louvers are used in both intake and exhaust applications for HVAC systems. Without louvers, we would have large openings on the side of the building with screens, allowing all the snow and rain to enter. So, how does a louver keep all the driving rain and snow out of the building? Louvers have varying blade shapes that provide different performances. All louvers are tested via a standard test to determine the point at which water will pass through. The air velocity in which water passes through a louver varies anywhere from 300 feet per minute (fpm) to over 1,000 fpm. When an engineer sizes a louver, they size one such that the velocity of airflow will remain below the tested penetration threshold. The louver plays an important role in keeping water out of the building.
Louver sizing is also impacted by the amount of free area they provide. Louvers are rated with pressure drops, which need to be calculated in the sizing of fans within the mechanical system. A louver that has a high-pressure drop increases the need for a larger fan and more energy usage. A louver with a low-pressure drop allows for less fan energy. Who doesn’t love something that takes less energy?
Louvers come in all shapes, sizes, and colors. They want to be sized to reduce the water penetration and pressure drop, but you can integrate them into the context of the building. There are rectangular ones, square ones, round ones, triangular ones, and, in the spirit of love, diamond-shaped ones.
When I was a young engineer, spell check was a new tool. And on one project, all of the keynotes referencing louvers were autocorrected to “lovers.” The contractor had some fun with this, and I am now on the lookout for “lovers” on projects.
Electrification and Sustainability Goals: Unveiling the Role of Heat Pumps
As we’ve all continually heard in recent years, electrification is a major sustainability goal for many municipalities, states, and even countries around the world1. Along with electrification comes a plethora of buzzwords and phrases, one of the most familiar being heat pumps. Air-source heat pumps—the most common application due to the relatively low cost of such systems—can absorb heat from the ambient air and transfer that heat into an occupied building space. But how does that work when the outside ambient air is cold?
Air-Source Heat Pumps Demystified: Operation in Cold Climates
Heat pumps manipulate the chemical properties of refrigerants at different pressures to absorb and release heat energy, moving it from outside to inside to heat a building.
At the right pressure, the boiling point of the refrigerant will actually be lower than the cold outside air temperature—and since heat energy always moves from the higher temperature substance (in this case, the outside air) to the lower temperature substance (the refrigerant), heat is absorbed from the “cold” outside air and then cycled to the occupied space.
The Chilling Challenge: How Cold Can Air-Source Heat Pumps Go?
So, heat pumps can pull heat from relatively cold outside air—but how cold can that outside air be?
The short answer is that it depends on the type of heat pump you are working with. Most one-to-one split heat pump systems (i.e., a single outdoor unit connected to a single indoor unit) and packaged heat pump systems (e.g., packaged rooftop units) begin to significantly reduce their heating capacity around 40-45°F ambient temperature—which is when you really start needing the heat!
However, these systems are typically designed to accommodate this derated capacity as the temperature continues to drop. Regardless, one-to-one and packaged heat pump systems are limited in how much heat they can provide at very cold temperatures. Below the “balance point” of derated heat pump capacity and building heating load, supplemental heat becomes necessary, typically in the form of some electric resistance heaters.
The most advanced heat pump technology available today takes the form of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) systems. VRF systems have been around in East Asia and Europe for decades and have gained a foothold in the U.S. in the last 15-20 years. This technology has seen an explosion of progress in that time. A few decades ago, VRF systems were only rated for heating in the range of -5°F to -10°F, below which the systems were configured to shut down to protect their internal components from the “extreme” cold! However, VRF systems today have heating performance data for operation down to -22°F or less! Granted, at a significantly derated heating capacity, but pause and grasp that this technology can pull heat out of -22°F air and move that heat inside your building! The upshot is that the balance point of VRF systems is much lower than the one-to-one or packaged heat pump systems described above. 360 Engineering has designed systems for large buildings in Denver and other cold climates capable of meeting the full heating load at -5°F without any supplemental heat systems required.
Breaking the Cold Barrier: Technological Advances in VRF Systems
Multiple technological advances have allowed VRF to progress to such a viable heating system, even in cold climates. Physical accessories on the outside casing of the heat pump units, such as wind baffles and snow hoods, mitigate the effects of weather on the operation and efficiency of the VRF heat pumps. Inside the heat pumps, flash-injection technology—where the system introduces a modest quantity of mixed-phase refrigerant (i.e., a mixture of gas and liquid) to cool the compressor—allows the compressor to operate at higher speeds by mitigating friction and accumulation of internal heat2. Higher compressor speed results in greater heating capacity for the system at lower ambient temperatures. On top of these technologies in the outdoor unit, VRF systems take advantage of heat recovery internally as well, moving energy from interior zones that have excess heat available to exterior zones that need that heat energy—bypassing the outdoor unit entirely through the use of an intermediate “mode control unit.”
Future Trends: The Journey of Heat Pump Technology in a World Moving Towards Electrification
Heat pump technologies have come a long way since they were first introduced in the HVAC industry. While limitations still exist for certain systems and applications, air-source heat pumps have become a viable and highly efficient option to provide the heat needed for buildings in cold climates. As the world continues toward electrification and the market demands better, higher-performing heat pumps, this technology will continue to progress toward greater heating capacities at colder ambient temperatures.
Gunnison County Libraries was looking to replace its existing library in Gunnison, Colorado, with a new sustainable building providing flexible and functional community space. The 15,000-square-foot public facility also needed to stand up to the harsh and variable weather conditions experienced in Gunnison. The high-elevation mountain sun is intense all year round, while winter ambient temperatures in the Gunnison Valley can drop below negative 30 degrees. In addition to cold temps, deep and heavy snow is common, so careful design of the roof systems by the Anderson Hallas Architects team was critical to handling snow and ice.
Energy Modeling and Assistance in Achieving Sustainability Goals
360 Engineering provided mechanical and plumbing engineering services, including energy modeling and assistance in achieving sustainability goals for the project. The design team was tasked with providing a building with an EUI (Energy Use Intensity) under 30. As a reference, the median EUI for a library in the US is 71.6 (Energy Star Benchmarking). The energy-efficient mechanical system combined geothermal ground source heat pumps and a variable air volume dedicated outside air system (VAV DOAS) with new DDC controls. The energy model completed at the end of the design predicted an EUI of 27.
Building EUI (Energy Use Intensity) goals for Net Zero
What does a low EUI have to do with Net Zero? A chart was developed by Building Green (BuildingGreen.com) to provide EUI goals for buildings that, combined with a solar PV array, provide a pathway to a Net Zero building. The Gunnison Library, a single-story, 15,000-square-foot building, has a targeted EUI of over 50. However, the chart developed by Building Green is based on a building using 70% electric and 30% natural gas. Having a goal of reducing fossil fuels and a fully electrified building shifts this chart, and the design goal of under 30 EUI puts us on the right track to achieve Net Zero.
The Gunnison Library utilizes an 18kW solar array with the intent that solar PV could be expanded as the allowable kW per array increases. The 18kW array provides 1.2 watts per square foot and is a minimal array, considering the average size of residential arrays are 7.1 kW (NREL).
So, how is the building doing? Over the last five months, the building has been operating with an EUI of 15.5! As mechanical engineers, this isn’t just a triumph; it’s a testament to our role in shaping a future where Net Zero isn’t a lofty ideal but a measurable reality. It’s a call to action for mechanical engineers everywhere—to engineer not just systems but sustainable solutions that propel us toward a future where our buildings don’t just weather the storm but become beacons of environmental responsibility.
The National Park Service (NPS) stores, maintains, and displays historic collections, artifacts, and culturally significant pieces across various sites. Recognizing the need for efficient infrastructure, NPS seized the opportunity to relocate collections and archives from several sites in the Northwest Region into one larger facility at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site in Washington.
Reduce deferred maintenance
Decrease operation and maintenance (O&M) costs
Address museum standard deficiencies
NPS chose Fort Vancouver Building 405 as the repository for collections from four national parks, totaling over 3 million items.
Inside Building 405 – Before Construction (Photo Credit: Anderson Hallas Architects)
Fort Vancouver Building 405 Rehabilitation Project
An existing 14,000-square-foot 1980s aircraft maintenance hangar
Selected for rehabilitation to serve as a museum collection storage facility
Dedicated spaces for object and archival storage, curated labs, and public viewing areas
Public Engagement Spaces:
Climate-controlled zones for high storage capacity
Visible spaces for public viewing in a preservation-friendly manner
Spaces for curatorial labs visible to the public
Large gathering spaces for school field trips and general assembly use
Mechanical System Options by 360 Engineering
Discovery and Presentation on Anderson Hallas Architect’s Team:
Based on our evaluation of the existing building and project goals, including 100% electrification, 360 Engineering explored various options
Presented options in a “Choosing By Advantage” or Value Analysis format, providing three options
Brennen Guy and Spencer Rioux presented to NPS staff at Fort Vancouver, addressing the pros and cons of each option
360 Engineering Project Manager, Brennen Guy, PE (CO), Presenting to NPS
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System Selected:
Reasons for Selection:
Minimizes ductwork to maximize storage space
Accommodates varying occupancies, including critical storage, laboratories, assembly spaces, library, and offices
Aligns with NPS’ energy-efficient principles, promoting reduced consumption and fossil fuel reliance
Advantages of VRF System:
Efficiently manages heating and cooling loads for diverse occupancies
Facilitates refrigerant heat recovery between zones, reducing energy waste
Aligns with NPS’ commitment to energy-efficient systems
Fort Vancouver Building 405 Rendering (Photo Credit: Anderson Hallas Architects)
Adopting the Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system for Fort Vancouver marks a significant step in realizing NPS’ Service-Wide Curation Facility Plan. This decision ensures optimal preservation conditions for the extensive collection while promoting energy efficiency in line with NPS’ principles.
HVAC and plumbing systems are essential to creating a comfortable and productive environment in our buildings; however, nothing can bring down the look of a well-designed space more than a misplaced diffuser or unexpected thermostat. In most instances, concealing HVAC and plumbing designs into high-finish spaces can come with major cost impacts, but there are simple ways to elevate the integration of these systems into a space without major impacts on the budget. Let’s explore a few!
Alignment of Ceiling Devices
Aligning diffusers with other ceiling devices is a small task but can have a big impact on the uniformity of the ceiling to provide a clean and organized look. The goal of this approach would be to align diffusers and other ceiling devices to the centerline of the lights, along with creating uniform spacing between the diffuser and other ceiling devices. To ensure the engineer has time to coordinate the final diffuser and device locations, the final locations of lights and other ceiling components should be provided around 75-80% CDs for final alignment. If the aesthetics of a space is a priority, having an RCP coordination meeting between the architect, electrical engineer, and mechanical engineer can be very beneficial to talk through the priority of devices and ensure all parties are fully coordinated.
Berthoud Recreation Center Aerobics StudioDenver Athletic Club 2nd Floor Lounge
Elevate the Diffuser Specifications
Standard cone, louvered, or perforated diffusers can be swapped out to a square plaque diffuser for both the supply and return in the ceiling for a small cost increase ($20-$30/diffuser*). If both the supply and return diffusers are revised to this specification, this can create a clean, uniform look in the ceiling. Square plaque diffusers have a very efficient supply air distribution, providing low-pressure drop and low sound levels with efficient mixing. However, it should be considered when using this specification for return air that this diffuser has less return capacity than other return diffusers with more free area, so additional return grilles may need to be added with this specification.
In addition to revising the specifications for square ceiling diffusers, there are many aesthetically pleasing grilles and slots that can be incorporated into the design for supply and return air. The architect should coordinate with the mechanical engineer early in the design process to discuss linear grilles or slot diffuser options to ensure these are properly coordinated into the ceiling and wall details. Although linear grilles and slot diffusers can add significant cost compared to standard louvered grilles or diffusers, applying slots to strategic spaces like lobbies or conference rooms can elevate these common spaces and set the tone for the rest of the building.
Coordinating Thermostat Locations and Specifications
When placing the thermostats on the plans, the engineer must be strategic with the placement to ensure optimal control of the mechanical system. If this is not properly coordinated during design, this can lead to unexpected locations on the wall come time for the final punch. When we are placing thermostats in the design, we are considering the following: direct sunlight, exterior walls, the path of supply airflow, proximity to major heat-producing equipment, location within the occupied/breathing zone, and many more. In some spaces, these considerations can make thermostat placement challenging.
For proper placement coordination, the architect should review the proposed thermostat locations on the drawings once the engineer has laid them out to ensure the locations do not conflict with their design. For more complex spaces, deeper coordination may be required to shift around the thermostats or even shift wall finishes around to accommodate the ideal thermostat location. A coordination meeting between the architect and mechanical engineer may be ideal for these more complex applications.
If local control of the temperature setpoint in the space is not required, remote temperature sensors can be considered for minimal added cost. This would locate a thermostat in a concealed or central location for temperature adjustment (If DDC controls are provided, this could be provided via a web-based controller) with a remote temperature sensor placed in the space being measured. There are several types of remote temperature sensors available, including button-style sensors that are about 1” in diameter and can be stainless steel, brass, or paintable and can be easily integrated into the design.
Crocs Corporate Headquarters
Although these recommendations are simple, they can be effective if proactive coordination is achieved. Having upfront discussions on the design intent of the mechanical and plumbing system integration throughout the project will help the engineer provide solutions early to achieve the aesthetic goals of the space. Additionally, if the aesthetics of these systems are a priority in a space, but the budget is tight, these simple solutions and several others can be applied without busting the budget.
Last month, we summarized some of the why and how of electrification related to mechanical and plumbing systems. When it comes to all-electric HVAC, the common denominator is refrigerant. Just about any mechanical system providing heating and/or cooling without using fossil fuels will include refrigerant at some level—heat pumps, chillers, geothermal they all include refrigerant compressor circuits. So, on top of local, state, and federal regulations pushing the industry toward building systems electrification, Congress has kept things interesting by passing the AIM Act in 2020.
The AIM Act and Refrigerant Regulation
The American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act grants the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate and phase out hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in the coming years. HFCs are potent greenhouse gases with a global warming potential (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (GWP = 1). To combat this, the EPA has set GWP limits for refrigerants manufactured or imported in the U.S.
Impact on the HVAC Industry
Current Refrigerant Landscape: Most heat pumps (including water-source heat pumps, variable refrigerant flow systems, etc.) and DX cooling units currently use R-410a refrigerant, boasting a GWP rating of around 3,000.
EPA’s GWP Limits: Starting in 2025-2026, the EPA mandates a GWP limit of 700 for refrigerants in these systems. Other types of equipment (such as supermarket refrigerated displays) have even lower GWP limits.
Industry Response: HVAC equipment manufacturers are investing significant time and effort in redesigning equipment to accommodate alternative refrigerants that comply with EPA requirements.
Choosing the Right Refrigerant
Various refrigerant options are available, but only a few are practical replacements for HFCs in HVAC systems.
Selection involves economic considerations and evaluation of potential life-safety risks.
Codes and standards such as the International Mechanical Code and ASHRAE Standard 15 guide allowable refrigerant volumes based on health hazards, flammability, and reactivity.
Our job as engineers is to calculate and confirm that a leak in the piping or equipment we’ve specified would not result in a concentration above this limit inside the smallest enclosed space served by our system.
Understanding Allowable Concentrations
For instance, R-410a has an allowable concentration of 26 lbs. per 1,000 cubic feet, with a health hazard rating of 2 (coupled with flammability and reactivity hazard ratings of 0).
R-32, a potential R-410a replacement, has a lower health hazard rating of 1 but a higher flammability hazard rating of 4, resulting in an allowable concentration of only 4.8 lbs. per 1,000 cubic feet.
Implications for HVAC Systems
The AIM Act’s impact extends to architectural, electrical, and structural designs.
Uncertainty remains about manufacturers’ refrigerant choices and their effects on system designs.
Potential changes could lead to larger equipment and piping, challenging installation, maintenance, and clearances.
Increased electrical loads may strain infrastructure, especially in buildings aiming for full electrification.
In summary, while the HVAC industry faces uncertainty due to the AIM Act, it is actively preparing for the changes. As engineers, we anticipate and embrace these challenges and are excited about the innovations driving our industry toward a more efficient and sustainable future.
At 360, we are constantly looking for ways to comply with the ever-changing permitting requirements and climate change mitigation efforts that the city of Denver implements. Our world is constantly evolving, and we need to find solutions to new climate challenges each day. In this blog post, we will discuss the opportunities for CompleteElectrification in Denver.
Our team is critically looking at options to ensure each project we work on not only meets the required regulations but is cost-effective too. Read along to see the importance of electrification and its impact.
What We Look At
In 2019, buildings and homes accounted for 64% of all community-generated greenhouse gas emissions in the city of Denver1. In 2020 Denver had the worst air pollution in 10 years2. Natural ventilation isn’t as effective when the air quality continues to decline, and moving to an all-electric system could mitigate safety issues associated with poor air quality while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
What is the Road Map to Electrification?
Obtaining “Quick Permits” is no longer allowed for replacing air handling units or water heaters utilizing natural gas in commercial buildings. The permitting process for these projects will be the same as applying for a new heat pump. There are a few exceptions.
Starting January 1st, 2025
Replacement of outdoor gas-fired equipment used primarily for heating needs to be electric, and secondary gas-fired heating equipment can be installed for supplemental heat only.
Replacement of outdoor cooling air conditioning or condensing unit equipment needs to be electric and provide space heating (like a heat pump), and a secondary piece of equipment can be installed for supplemental heat only.
Replacement of a storage water heater or instantaneous water heater needs to be an electric water heater.
Starting January 1st, 2027
Replacement of gas-fired boilers must utilize electric heating for 50% of space heating needs/water heating needs; the remaining 50% can be met with a replacement of the gas-fired boiler.
Replacement of an air conditioner that serves spaces that are also being heated needs to be replaced with electric equipment that does both heating and cooling.
How does this affect the A&E Industry?
Denver will require reporting of estimated building Energy Use Intensity (EUIs) with targeted goals in 2024, 2027, and 2030.
There will be fines associated with incorrect modeling/inability to meet target EUIs (as established by Denver).
High-Efficiency Mechanical equipment will be the standard.
Increased coordination between disciplines will be even more important.
All disciplines (not just mechanical) have options to assist in Denver’s EUI requirements:
High efficiency, tight envelope construction
Energy Star and low-water plumbing fixtures
Limitations of Electrification
Upfront costs for heat pumps are typically higher than standard Direct Expansion (DX) cooling and gas-fired air handling units.
Currently, gas rates in Denver are still lower per amount of heat energy than electricity.
Newer technology for building operators: lack of experience may result in lack of confidence in new heat pump technology. Additional training may be needed for facility staff.
Most existing buildings were not provided with an electrical service intended for full building heating. An Electrification Feasibility Report is one way to determine the impact of a fully electric mechanical system on the building infrastructure.
Let’s Wrap it Up
With the new regulations coming, Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) will become even more important to show the offset of maintenance, utility, and upfront costs between mechanical systems. It is important to know the regulations to ensure the safety and longevity of your product. Energy modeling is already required in some cities like Boulder and will become required in Denver to demonstrate energy compliance.
For any questions or inquiries or to get started on your next project, Contact Us.
At 360 Engineering, we consistently optimize projects by creating custom designs and recommendations. This project we started in 2018 for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was no exception. Once COVID-19 hit, we learned how the economy could quickly derail a project, but we steered it on the right track by helping NREL find a viable path forward and breaking the project into two phases.
NREL realized one of its cooling towers at the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) was using a significant amount of water, and they brought our team in to find a solution. During a gas line replacement project, water was encountered immediately below the access road, and it was determined to be a leak of the condenser water lines from the cooling towers to the chilled water plant.
“360 Engineering reconfigured the operation of the cooling tower condenser water plant to optimize both the performance of the plant as well as increase the system redundancy moving forward.”
The design phase of this project could be broken down into the following general steps:
Pre-Design – During this process, the design team determined the new cooling tower could be placed next to the others instead of in a separate location, eliminating extra landscaping work.
Design Solutions – The team decided to route the condenser water lines from the cooling towers to the chillers over the service road to keep the chillers operational while the underground lines were replaced. This solution also maintained the service road access for other vehicles.
Testing and Balancing – We worked closely with the contractor and NREL to diagnose some pump issues and provide additional designs to improve the water flow.
Our early discussions and understanding of intent led to a better end solution for NREL with these positive outcomes:
Optimized the plant’s performance and increased system redundancy
Maximized the life of the new piping with a high-quality pre-insulated option, less subjectable to corrosive soils
Saved time and money by breaking the project into phases and using forward-thinking design solutions
This project included our long-time electrical engineering partner, AE Design, and structural and civil engineers from Martin/Martin. We have an amazing team of expert consultants who have worked with us on NREL projects since the beginning.
For any questions, inquiries, or to get started on your next project,Contact Us.
Colorado Companies to Watch Announces their 2023 Winners at the 15th Annual Awards Gala June 16, 203 For Immediate Release
Colorado Companies to Watch Announces 2023 Winners at 15th Annual Gala Awards Dinner
An Unparalleled Night Celebrating 50 of Colorado’s Entrepreneurial Gems with Master of Ceremonies, Chris Parente, Channel 2 Anchor.
Denver, CO – Colorado Companies to Watch (CCTW) is pleased to announce the selection of its Winners for this year. On June 16th, fifty outstanding businesses will be honored at the Annual Gala Awards Dinner at the Hyatt Regency Denver Tech Center, located at 7800 East Tufts Avenue in Denver, CO, and will include Chris Parente as the evening’s Master of Ceremonies.
Colorado Companies to Watch is a nonprofit awards program that honors 50 fast-growing 2nd stage companies across the state for their performance in the marketplace, innovative products, and unique processes and philanthropic actions. Celebrates the achievements of growth-oriented companies located throughout Colorado. This year’s winners were selected from a pool of 1150 nominations, after an intensive two-month selection process by a panel of industry experts and leaders from around Colorado.
This event marks the fifteenth consecutive year that Colorado Companies to Watch has recognized second-stage companies for their significant contributions to their communities, industries, and economies. At the Annual Gala Awards Dinner, each winner will receive recognition for their entrepreneurial spirit, dedication to creating jobs, and commitment to making a positive impact on local and state economies. In addition to celebrating this year’s honorees, attendees will have the opportunity to network with industry leaders and professionals from across Colorado while gaining valuable insights into successful second-stage business strategies.
“We are thrilled to celebrate the remarkable achievements of these 2nd-stage companies at this year’s Gala Awards Dinner. These dynamic companies play a pivotal role in Colorado’s economy, serving as the driving force behind innovation, job creation, and sustainable growth. I am inspired by the resiliency and ingenuity displayed by these companies, who continue to push boundaries and thrive amidst challenges. Their contributions not only fuel our state’s economic vitality but also serve as a beacon of entrepreneurial spirit for aspiring businesses.” said Erin Beckstein, Program Director, Colorado Companies to Watch.
To add to the celebration, CCTW also announced its 2023 Hall of Fame Winners. Each year, the Winners were carefully selected for their outstanding achievements, authoritative leadership, and continued contributions to their respective industries. Their persistent efforts towards product innovation, community development, and impressive employee and sales growth stand out as exemplary.
The 2023 Hall of Fame Winners Lifescape Colorado SonderMind
2023 Colorado Companies to Watch Winners
10x People 360 Engineering Inc Aneka Interiors, Inc Ascent CFO Solutions Axe and the Oak Distillery B-Line Construction Services Brothers Plumbing, Heating & Electric Citrine LLC Common Knowledge Technology Concurrent HRO Connects Workspace Cultivate DevReady ERO Resources Corporation Everest Mechanical Fast Fit Foods FusionAuth Garlic Media Group GolfForever Hydrate IV Bar Innate.ly Innovest Portfolio Solutions KadyLuxe Kitcaster Låda Cube
LeafTech Consulting Lily’s Toaster Grills MenuTrinfo, LLC MODSTREET Moser Aviation NULASTIN Nymbl Science Occasions Catering Path2Response Photobucket Point b(e) Strategies, LLC Quicksilver Scientific Reata Engineering & Machine Works Roofnest SAFE Engineering Sauvage Spectrum Shift Workspaces Shinesty Terra Ferma, LLC THiN AiR Brands Tierra Group International, Ltd. Trisco Foods, LLC True Anomaly Vitality Watson Mills and Design
About Colorado Companies to Watch Colorado’s second-stage companies represent high-performing and innovative companies, crossing every industry sector and region in the state, of which provide thousands of high-quality jobs and contributes billions of dollars back to our local economies. Colorado Companies to Watch (CCTW) certifies and spotlights the important contributions they make. To date, we have celebrated close to 750 companies, resulting in a $6.5 billion economic impact on Colorado’s economy. The Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT) in conjunction with the Edward Lowe Foundation initiated the program in 2009 along with valuable sponsors, key drivers, community and supporting partners, and volunteers from throughout Colorado. Today, CCTW encourages the collaboration and advancement of our alumni network and aligns strategic partnerships and alliances by leveraging valuable resources to support and nurture the growth of our alumni and their businesses. Visit ColoradoCompaniestoWatch.org, facebook.com/ColoradoCompaniestoWatch and Twitter @ColoradoCTW.
For more information, please contact: Erin Beckstein, COO Crazy Good Marketing Program Director, Colorado Companies to Watch 720.325.2517, x697 email@example.com
Here are some considerations for designing mechanical systems for properties in remote/climate-sensitive locations, meanwhile achieving the energy savings needed to accommodate sustainability goals, such as in our Gunnison County Library project.
• Utilizing a geothermal system allows for an all-electric system without having to deal with the extreme low temperatures as a source for heat-pump heat.
• Energy modeling is critical when designing a geothermal system not only to size the bore field but to ensure that the heating and cooling loads are sufficiently balanced to mitigate long-term ground temperature drift.
• In environments such as this with year-round intense sun and heating dominant loads, exploring different glazing locations and characteristics is important as sometimes glass that allows more solar load in, while increasing the cooling load, will decrease the heating load, and may increase the overall efficiency of the building.
• Incorporating energy recovery for ventilation is key in mitigating the energy associated with bringing in fresh air during very cold temperatures, especially when utilizing an all-electric system.